However, the ceasefire began to break from 2013, following the deterioration of bilateral relations between neighbours and the gradual increase in cross-border fire. Since 1984, Indian and Pakistani troops have also been fighting temporarily in the Siachen Glacier in northern Kashmir. A ceasefire came into effect in 2003. It is interesting to note here that Pakistan seems to be trying to formalize the 2003 ceasefire, when the Indian side seems quite reluctant to discuss it. Addressing the 70th session of the UN General Assembly in September 2015, former Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif said: “We propose that Pakistan and India formalize and respect the 2003 agreement for a comprehensive ceasefire on the Kashmir line of control.” And he proposed an extension of the UN military observer group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) to monitor the ceasefire. In October 2016, Pakistan`s High Commissioner to New Delhi, Abdul Basit, reiterated the same offer and said: “This would help prevent further deterioration of the situation until we are able to resume talks.” In a telephone hotline speech, Pakistan commander Gen Shamshad Mirza and his Indian counterpart, Le Lieut Gen Anil Chauhan, said they were ready to “fully implement” the 2003 ceasefire agreement “in the letter and mind.” With regard to the joint dispute resolution commissions in the event of a breach of the ceasefire, the troop withdrawal mechanism applied at the end of the 1965 war can be adopted with some necessary amendments. As part of the agreement on the withdrawal of troops on 22 January 1966, India and Pakistan agreed that “in all cases, if the fires are carried out across the border, they will be examined on the spot by a joint team of border guards on both sides. The brigade commanders and DIGs responsible for this investigation are designated by name and area of appointment. She also said that 36 civilians living in border villages had been killed in the shooting and that thousands more had been forced to flee their homes to escape the deadly shelling. In exchange, Pakistan accused India of violating the ceasefire on countless occasions and of killing at least 28 of its civilians. There are several explanations for these events; they range from local military factors at the border to a greater dynamic of internal and external political developments. But one thing is certain: all these ceasefire violations are taking place because India and Pakistan do not have a formal ceasefire agreement, with clearly defined modalities or standard operating procedures (SOPS) to manage their borders. What currently prevents India and Pakistan from firing into the fire is a “ceasefire offer” from then-Pakistani Prime Minister Zafarullah Jamali in 2003, on the eve of Eid al-Fitr. The official adoption of the ceasefire by India took place a few days later in a statement from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs: “The Directors General of Military Operations of India and Pakistan have agreed to abide by a ceasefire effective from midnight tonight along the international border, the line of control and the real land position line (AGPL) in Siachen.” Experts have been cautious in the agreement, highlighting the long history of rivals who have failed in peace efforts.